Displacements include (from north to south)
* Urban Heat Island (UHI)
Urban heat island (UHI) is a health concern. Increasing the percentage of impervious surface is linked to an increase in surface temperature.
The extent of tree canopy in an area can have a direct effect on temperatures and health. Higher levels of tree canopy coverage can help curb urban heat island effects by lowering temperatures. Not only is extreme heat the primary weather-related cause of death in the U.S. according to 2018 National Weather Service Office estimates but hot temperatures also create the weather conditions necessary to produce ground-level ozone.
Loughner CP, Allen DJ, Zhang D-L, Pickering KE, Dickerson RR, Landry L. Roles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization and Preliminary Results. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 2012; 51:1775-1793.
Houston Academy for International Studies